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Types of Mines

Mines/UXO come in many different shapes, sizes and colors. They may not always be the brightly colored objects seen in the posters and displays. Age and weathering can change their appearances with the metal mines rusting and the wooden and plastic mines breaking down.

Mines, used in Georgia:

PMN

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 120 mm; Length: 57 mm; Weight: 454 g; Explosive type: TNT; Net explosive weight: 234 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

This is a delay-armed, pressure-fired, high explosive (blast) antipersonnel (apers) landmine. The mine may be black, green, or brown. The black and green mines have no markings. Markings may be found on the bottom side of the brown mine. The initiator assembly has a booster charge and a percussion fired primer-detonator. The mine contains a cocked firing pin. The mine case is plastic; the pressure plate cover is rubber. The standard firing assembly adapter plug and the SVP arming device are plastic.

PMN-2

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 121,60 mm; Length: not available; Weight: 420 g; Explosive type: TNT - RDX - A1; Net explosive weight: 108 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

This is  a pressure activated antipersonnel blast mine and the successor of the PMN mine. The main improvement over the PMN is the incorporation of a blast resistant pressure fuze in the PMN-2. Additionally, the mine appears to be capable of mechanical emplacement. Due to several factors, including the small surface of the rubber cover X-shaped pressure plate and an integral baffle configuration, the mine is not susceptible to traditional explosive mine countermeasures. The mine is green or black. The case is plastic.

PFM-1 / PFM-1S

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 61 mm; Length: 120 mm; Weight: 70 g; Explosive type: Liquid plastic; Net explosive weight: 40 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

PFM-1 scatterable pressure-sensitive blast mine is also known as the "butterfly mine" because of its shape. The mine consists of a pressure-fuzed liquid explosive in a green or sand-brown plastic case. It is a reverse-engineered copy of the US BLU-43. A self -destruct variant of this mine, the PFM-1S, is intended to randomly self-destruct over a period of time. While the nominal period for 85% self-destruct is 40 hours, the mines remain functional for far longer. PFM-1S mines are known to continue to randomly self-destruct for weeks after deployment.

MON-50

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 45 mm; Length: 220 mm; Weight: 2 kg; Explosive type: PVV-5A; Net explosive weight: 1kg; Special instructions required for transportation; Disposal by detonation.

Soviet version of American M-18 Claymore, a directional fragmentation mine. Has a plastic body with rows of imbedded fragments, and the other with 485 cylindrical chopped steel wire fragments. The mine rests on two pairs of folding scissors-like legs. Because the mine can be articulated at the leg joints, the height of the fragment pattern can be adjusted. On the top center of the mines is a peep sight with a fuze well on either side. These fuze wells will accommodate a variety of fuzes, including tripwire, break-wire, and command detonation.

MON-90

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: Not available; Length: 345 mm; Weight: 12,4 kg; Explosive type: PVV-5A; Net explosive weight: 6,45 kg; ; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

The MON-50 and MON-90 are complementary antipersonnel weapons that project steel fragments within a 40/60 degree area coverage. The MON-90 contains 2000 cylindrical steel fragments embedded in a plastic matrix in front of the explosive. The mine is OD green or brown. The mine is plastic.

MON-100

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 220 mm; Length: Not available; Weight: 5 kg; Explosive type: TNT; Net explosive weight: 1,79 kg; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

The MON-100 is a cylindrical directional fragmentation mine designed by former Soviet Union. It consists of a metallic case containing an explosive charge, steel fragments, and a metal stand. The 400 cylindrical steel fragments (10mm x 10mm) are embedded in a plastic matrix in front of the explosive. the mine can be attached to any fixed object or mounted on its own metal stake. The MON-100 can be functioned by a tripwire, a break-wire or command detonated (including by a variety of minefield control devices) and has a lethal range of 100 meters. At 100 meters, 50% of the fragments will strike within 5 meters of the mines aiming point. The MON-100 can be used singly or as part of an integrated explosive barrier. The mine is not only effective against dismounted infantry, but also lightly armored vehicles. The mine is OD green. The mine case is sheet steel.

POMZ-2M

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 60 mm; Length: Not available; Weight: 1,77 kg; Explosive type: TNT; Net explosive weight: 75 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

The POMZ-2M is a fragmentation stake mine consisting of a serrated cylindrical cast-iron fragmentation sleeve, a 75-gram TNT charge, an MUV-type tripwire fuze, and a wooden stake. This mine is normally employed in covering vegetation with the top of the mine approximately 30 cm above ground with the tripwire attached to several tripwires may be attached to one mine. The POMZ-2M differs from POMZ-2, its predecessor, in that it is lighter, has fewer serrations, and the fuze well is threaded to increase water resistively. The mine is OD green and is 107 mm high. The mine has fuze well and no power source. The mine case is made of cast-iron.

OZM-72

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 106,93 mm; Length: 105 mm; Weight: 5 kg; Explosive type: TNT; Net explosive weight: 700 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

The OZM-72 is the successor to the OZM-4 mine. Other than size, the primary difference found in the OZM-72 is a prefragmented sleeve contained in an outer body. Interestingly, the fragments are exactly the same as the chopped wire used in former Soviet MON-50 directed fragmentation mine. Detonation is normally accomplished from a tripwire fuze, but command-detonated, tension-release, or simple pressure fuzes could also be used. Height of burst is determined by a lanyard packed in the base of the mine as in the OZM-4, but a secondary initiation system using a delay charge has been added. The ensuing fragmentation of the mine body results in the lethal radius of 25 meters - a former Soviet design standard. This mine is considerably larger than the M16A1, which has a clamed lethal radius of 27 meters. The case is OD green. The mine has one fuze well and can use an external power source. The mine is 171,45 mm high. The case is made of sheet steel.

PROM -2

 

Country of origin: Yugoslavia; Diameter/Width: 85 mm; Length: 200 mm; Weight: 1,3 kg; Explosive type: Unknown; Net explosive weight:  350 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

PROM-2 is a pressure or pull actuated bounding APERS landmine. Landmine is green with black or yellow markings. Markings on the side of the mine read: TX50 POM2, translation PROM-2. Material: metal.

TS-50

 

Country of origin: Italy; Diameter/Width: 90 mm; Length: 46 mm; Weight: 187,11 g; Explosive type: RDX; Net explosive weight: 53,87 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

TS-50 is a pressure-actuated, blast, hand-emplaced or scatterable, apers landmine. Like VS-50, the TS-50 is designed to withstand blast overpressure caused by explosive countermeasure techniques. The mine is normally dispensed from a helicopter-carried dispenser or from a ground vehicle dispenser. The mine is functional in  shallow water normally up to 1,00-meter in depth. The mines are normally olive-drab, or khaki (sand) colored. Other colors are optional upon the users request. The mines may also have black rubber pressure plates. The TS-50 may have the nomenclature TS-50 stamped in the pressure plate. The VS-50 and TS-50 shipping plugs are normally blue; the VS-50AR shipping plug is orange. The detonator holders are usually either gray, olive-drab or khaki  colored, but may be found in other colors. The mines are plastic, the pressure plates are rubber. The earlier made VS-50 landmines may have had a metal lower case.

TM-57

 

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 312 mm; Length: 119 mm; Weight: 9 kg; Explosive type: RDX/TNT/Aluminum; Net explosive weight: 7 kg; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

This is a pressure-actuated high-explosive blast antitank (AT) mine. The mine and the MVZ-57 fuze are olive drab. Designation and manufacturing data are embossed on the bottom and stenciled in black on the top of the mine. Designation and and manufacturing data are stenciled in black on the top of the MVZ-57 fuze. Painting and markings of the MVSh-57 fuze are unknown. It may be equipped with either and MVZ-57 fuze or an MVSh-57 tiltrod fuze. The mine and the MVZ-57 fuze are steel. The MVSh-57 fuze is thought to be steel.

TM-62

 

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 316 mm; Length: 102 mm; Weight: 8,5 kg; Explosive type: Trotyl/Ammonite 80; Net explosive weight: 7 kg; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

The TM-62 series are high-explosive, blast, antitank (AT) landmines used against track and wheeled vehicles. These mines can be planted in the open (above grade), covered (below grade), and in shallow water. Mines are emplaced manually, by mechanical mine-laying equipment, or dispensed from a helicopter-carried dispenser. Some of the TM-62 series mines also have secondary fuze wells. The mines may be olive drab, green, brown, or khaki/sand colored. Service fuzes are green or green with a brown bakelite plastic pressure plate. These fuzes may also be light brown or khaki/sand colored. Service fuze markings are stenciled in black. Training fuzes are green plastic or light brownish in color with a white stenciled or painted stripe. Markings on some training fuzes are red. The TM-62M is metal. The fuzes are either plastic or a  combination of plastic and aluminum.

Grenades, used in Georgia:

RG-42

 

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 54 mm; Length: 121 mm; Weight: 440 g; Explosive type: TNT; Net explosive weight: 119,07 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

This is hand-thrown, defensive fragmentation grenade which may also be used as booby-traps. It uses the UZRG or UZRGM striker-release fuzing. The grenade is shipped with shipping plugs installed, the fuze is inserted in the field. The RG-42 is olive drab. The markings are black. The RG-42 has a sheet steel body. The safety lever and fuze body are steel. The shipping plug is plastic.

RGD-5

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 58 mm; Length: 117 mm; Weight: 320 g; Explosive type: TNT; Net explosive weight: 110,57 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

This is hand-thrown, defensive fragmentation grenade which may also be used as booby-traps. It uses the UZRG or UZRGM striker-release fuzing. The grenade is shipped with shipping plugs installed, the fuze is inserted in the field. RGD-5 are olive drab. All grenades may have black markings on the body. The RGD-5 has a sheet steel body. The safety lever and fuze body are steel. The shipping plug is plastic.

F-1

Country of origin: USSR; Diameter/Width: 55 mm; Length: 117 mm; Weight: 699 g; Explosive type: TNT; Net explosive weight: 51,03 g; Do not transport; Disposal by detonation.

This is hand-thrown, defensive fragmentation grenade which may also be used as booby-traps. It uses the UZRG or UZRGM striker-release fuzing. F-1 may be gray, olive drab or unpainted. The body of the F-1 is cast iron.  The safety lever and fuze body are steel. The shipping plug is plastic.

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